This sandstone monument in the Royal Botanic Gardens is a replica of the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates near the Acropolis in Athens, Greece. It was created by Walter McGill, sculptor for James Martin, Premier of New South Wales, and was erected in the grounds of his residence in Macleay Street, Potts Point in 1870. When that site was acquired by the Commonwealth Government for the installation of a graving dock, it was moved to the Botanic Gardens with a commemoration ceremony held in 1943. The original Choragic Monument of Lysicrates in Athens was erected by the choregos Lysicrates, a wealthy patron of musical performances in the Theater of Dionysus, to commemorate the award of first prize in 335/334 BC to a performance he had sponsored. The choregos was the sponsor who paid for and supervised the training of the dramatic dance-chorus.